Sunday 12 April 2020

NELSON MANDELA- LONG WALK TO FREEDOM (class 10 question& answers)

ues: Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
Answer: The ceremonies took place in the sandstone amphitheater formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. The Supreme Court of India, Parliament House, Rashtrapati Bhavan are some of the public buildings in India made of sandstone.
ues:  Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
Answer: 10 May is an 'autumn day' in South Africa since this day was the largest meeting of international leaders on South African soil to establish the first democratic, non-racial government in South Africa.
Ques: At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious … human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
Answer: The 'extraordinary human tragedy' described by Mandela at the beginning of his speech refers to the cruel practice of apartheid, i.e. the racial injustice endured in South Africa by the blacks at the hands of the whites. In the end, the 'glorious human achievement' he spoke of refers to the development of the first democratic, non-racial government in South Africa.
Ques: What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
Answer: Mandela felt fortunate to be the host of the International nations since just a while ago South Africans were considered outlaws. Therefore, he thanked all the world leaders for witnessing his abdication as President as this occurrence could be considered a shared victory for justice, peace and human dignity.
Ques: What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?
Answer: Mandela had high expectations for South Africa's future. He vowed to rid all South Africans of the enduring slavery of poverty, deprivation, misery, gender and other discrimination. He also underlined that South Africa's magnificent land should never again suffer racial discrimination.
Ques: What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?
Answer: South African defense force and police's top military generals saluted Mandela and swore their loyalty. When the military officers welcomed Mandela, he wasn't oblivious that a few years ago they wouldn't have saluted him but arrested him.
Ques: Why were two national anthems sung?
Answer: Two national anthems were sung on the day of the inauguration, one by the whites and another by the blacks. This symbolized blacks and whites becoming equal.
Ques: How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country (i) in the first decade, and (ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?
Answer: i) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the white-skinned peoples of South Africa patched up their differences and developed a regime of ethnic dominance against the dark-skinned inhabitants of their own territory, thus providing the basis for one of the harshest and most inhumane societies ever known to the world.
ii) The previous regime had been permanently overthrown in the last decade of the twentieth century and replaced by one that acknowledged the rights and freedoms of all races, regardless of the color of their skin.
Ques: What does courage mean to Mandela?
Answer: Mandela discovered that bravery was not the absence of terror, but the victory over it, when she saw people stand up to attacks and torture without cracking and thereby displaying strength and endurance that defied the imagination.
Ques: Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
Answer:  For Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate.
Ques: Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?
Answer: South Africa was in the grips of apartheid until Nelson Mandela became the President, and was then branded an outlaw by other nations. When Mandela became President, apartheid was abolished and diplomatic relations with several countries were restored.
Ques: What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?
Answer: As Mandela says he was 'simply the sum of all African patriots,' he means he can connect with the unparalleled sacrifices of all those noble and brave men who have fought for African people's collective liberty. He was pained not being able to thank them, and not being able to see what their efforts had done.

Ques: How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
Answer: As a child, Mandela didn't hunger for liberty because he thought he was born free. He believed he was free in any way, as long as he obeyed his father and abided by his tribe's customs As an adolescent he had certain needs and as a young man, he had other needs. Gradually he discovered during his boyhood that he was selfish. He gradually understands that it is not just his freedom that is being curtailed, but the emancipation of all blacks.
Ques: How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
Answer: In his youth, Mandela realized that it was not only his independence that was being curtailed but the emancipation of all blacks. The desire for his own liberty was a desire for his people's rights.
Ques: What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?
Answer: Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife, and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.
Ques: What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honorable freedoms”?
Answer: As a boy, Mandela wasn't hungry to be free, because he felt he was born free. As long as he obeyed his father, and kept up with his tribe's traditions, he was safe in every way he knew. As a kid, he only wanted those "transitory freedoms" for himself, such as being able to stay out at night, reading what he liked, and going to where he wished. He then speaks about certain "simple honorable freedoms" such as recognizing his ability to earn his living, marry and have a child. He compares these two freedoms by saying that he was limited to the transitory freedoms he desired, while the noble freedoms had to do more with the role of his citizens in society.
Ques: Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not?
Answer: Mandela does not feel the oppressor is free because he thinks an oppressor is a prisoner of hate, trapped behind bars of oppression and narrowness. He thinks they are deprived of their dignity by both the oppressor and the oppressed.

The black Aeroplane (question and answers)

1. “I’ll take the risk.” What is the risk? Why does the narrator take it?
Answer: The risk was to fly through the black storm clouds. The narrator took the risk because he wanted to reach Paris to celebrate Christmas with his family.

2. Describe the narrator’s experience as he flew the aeroplane into the storm.
Answer: As he flew into the storm, everything went black. It was impossible to see anything outside the plane. It jumped and twisted in the air. When he looked at his compass, he saw that it was turning round and round. It was dead. Along with it, the other instruments, including the radio, were also dead. Suddenly, he saw another aeroplane. Its pilot waved at him, asking him to follow. He was glad to find a helper. He was using his last fuel tank and there was only enough fuel to fly five or ten minutes. Then, the other pilot started to go down and he followed. He suddenly came out of the clouds and saw the runway, on which he then landed his plane safely.

3. Why does the narrator say, “I landed and was not sorry to walk away from the old Dakota…”?
Answer: He was delighted to land safely out of dark stormy clouds, therefore, he was not sorry to walk away for his plane. He felt bad, when he was no able to thank his guide, his mentor who saved him from from frightening situations, but he was so happy after landing that he didn’t feel sorry for not being able to thank the guide pilot.

4. What made the woman in the control centre look at the narrator strangely?
Answer: The women in the control room was surprised when the narrator asked about the other aeroplane and its pilot. She said that there was no areoplane seen on the radar.

5. Who do you think helped the narrator to reach safely? Discuss this among yourselves and give reasons for your answer.
Answer: Probably, it was the narrator’s own self that helped him through the storm. There was no other plane in the storm as the woman at the control centre could see only his plane on the radar. Also, no other plane was flying that night. In his fear, he might have been hallucinating. He was a good pilot, and it might have been his own self that came to his help.

WIND Class 9 (question & Answers)

Question and Answers

1. What are the things the wind does in the first stanza?
A. When the wind blows violently, it destroys everything. It breaks the shutters of windows, scatters the papers, throws the books down from the shelves, tears their pages and brings along a lot of rain.

2. What does the poet say the wind god winnows?
A. The wind God winnows means that nature sifts the weak things from the strong ones. Everything that is weak is tossed by the powerful wind and gets destroyed. Just like the winnower separates the grains of wheat from the chaff, similarly, the wind god separates the weak from the strong.

3. What should we do to make friends with the wind?
A. We must make ourselves strong to face the violent wind. When we will be strong, the wind will not harm us, instead it will become a friend and help us to grow and flourish.
4. What do the last four lines of the poem mean to you?
A. The last four lines of the poem carry an important message that the strong people emerge stronger and victorious in the face of adversities. We must make ourselves strong like a burning fire which grows and flourishes in the violent wind, we also prosper in the face of challenges.

WIND (POEM) Class 9 literary devices

Literary devices in the poem

Rhyme scheme - The entire poem is written in free verse. There is no rhyme scheme in the poem.
The literary devices used are as follows –
  1. Anaphora - When a word is repeated at the start of two or more consecutive lines, it is the device of Anaphora.
Lines 2, 3, 4 begin with ‘don’t’.
Lines 6, 7, 8 begin with ‘you’.
  1. Personification – wind has been personified. When the poet says ‘you are’, he is referring to wind as ‘you’ that means he is treating wind as a person.

  1. Repetition - ‘crumbling’ is repeated many times to lay emphasis. The poet wants to say that the wind crushes everything that is weak. That is why he repeats the word crumbling.

  1. Alliteration - the repetition of a consonant sound in close connection. ‘wind winnows’.
‘won’t want’

  1. Symbolism - Symbolism means that the thing refers to some other thing. wind is a symbol. It refers to the challenges in life. He is using wind as a symbol for the adversities in our life.

The Lost Child (class 9)

 Class 9 English The Lost Child

Page No: 6 Think About It
1. What are the things the child sees on his way to the fair? Why does he lag behind?
Ans: The child sees a number of things which fascinate him on his way to the fair
▸ Firstly, he saw toys at a shop.
▸ Then he saw a flowering mustard field.
▸ In the fields, the child also saw dragon flies,butterflies fluttering their wings
▸ Then while walking on the footpath he was amazed by the insects and worms
▸ When he entered the grove he saw doves which were cooing
▸ As he neared the village with his parents, he saw huge crowds of people going to the fair
▸ The child also came across sweetmeat seller selling sweets like burfi and gulabjamun and a little further he came across a flower seller who was selling a garland of gulmohar
▸ Walking ahead, he saw a man selling rainbow colour balloons
▸ He also saw a snake charmer who stood playing a flute to a snake
▸ Finally, before losing track of his parents he saw a roundabout swing
The child keeps lagging behind his parents on the way and his mother and father have to constantly call him so that he doesn’t lag behind. This is because the child is fascinated by all the things he sees on his way. At times, he stops to be able to buy toys and at other times he stops to admire the beauty of the nature – collecting flowers, catching butterflies.

2. In the fair he wants many things. What are they? Why does he move on without waiting for an Answer?
Ans: The child many things in fair. They are
▸ Toys and Balloons
▸ Sweets from the sweetmeat seller
▸ Garland of gulmohar
▸ Watching the snake charmer play flute to a snake
▸ A ride in the roundabout
The boy moved on without waiting for an Answer because he knew that his request would be denied at each step.

3. When does he realize that he has lost his way? How have his anxiety and insecurity been described?
Ans: He realises that he has lost his way when on reaching the roundabout; he stopped to observe it moving in full swing, with men, women and children enjoying themselves on it. Watching them intently he turned to his parents to ask for permission to go on the rounds but there was no reply from them. He turned to look for them but they were not there. He looked all around but there was no sign of them. A full, deep cry rose within his dry throat and with a sudden jerk of his body he ran from where he stood, crying out in real fear “Mother, Father.” Tears rolled down from his eyes, his flushed face was convulsed with fear. Panic-stricken, he ran from one side to the other, in all directions, knowing not where to go. His yellow turban came untied and his clothes became muddy.

4. Why does the lost child lose interest in the things that he had wanted earlier?
Ans: The lost child loses interest in the things that he had wanted earlier because he was panic stricken on being separated from his parents. All he wanted was to be united with them. All the things that attracted him in the fair no longer appeal to him and now the only thing that matters is finding his parents.

5. What do you think happens in the end? Does the child find his parents?
Ans: In the end the parents, who continuously kept checking to see that he was with them right from the beginning of their journey may have suddenly realized that he was missing and come looking for the lost child. The kind and understanding man who tried to console the little boy by offering him various things at the fair may have also asked him for some description of his parents and helped him to be reunited with them.

The Fun They had (class 9)

. Answer these questions in a few words or a couple of sentences each.
1. How old are Margie and Tommy?
2. What did Margie write in her diary?
3. Had Margie ever seen a book before?
4. What things about the book did she find strange?
5. What do you think a telebook is?
6. Where was Margie’s school? Did she have any classmates?
7. What subjects did Margie and Tommy learn?
Ans: 1. Margie is eleven and Tommy is thirteen-year-old.
2. Margie wrote, “Today Tommy found a real book!”.
3. No, Margie had never seen a book before.
4. Margie found it strange that the words printed on a book stood still instead of moving the way they did on a screen. She also found it odd that the words on a page always remained the same as the first time they were read. Besides, the idea that someone would write a book about schools was itself strange for Margie.
5. A book that can be displayed on a screen is called telebook.
6. Margie’s school was in her home itself, right next to her bedroom. No, she did not have any classmates.
7. Margie and Tommy learned geography, history and arithmetic.
I. Answer the following with reference to the story.
1. “I wouldn’t throw it away.”
(i) Who says these words?
(ii) What does ‘it’ refer to?
(iii) What is it being compared with by the speaker?
Ans: (i) Tommy said these words.
(ii) ‘It’ refers to the television screen, on which you could read over a million books
(iii) Tommy is comparing the television screen to the real books in earlier times in which words were printed on paper. He thought that after reading such books, one would have to throw them away. However, he would never have to throw away his telebooks.

2. “Sure they had a teacher, but it wasn’t a regular teacher. It was a man.”
(i) Who does ‘they’ refer to?
(ii) What does ‘regular’ mean here?
(iii) What is it contrasted with?
Ans: (i) They refer to the students who studied in the old kind of schools centuries before the time the story is set in.
(ii) Here, ‘regular’ refers to the mechanical teachers that Tommy and Margie had.
(iii) The mechanical teacher is contrasted with the teacher of the earlier times, who was a human being.

III. Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (about 30 words).
1. What kind of teachers did Margie and Tommy have?
Ans: Margie and Tommy had mechanical teachers. They were large and black and ugly and had large black screens on which all the lessons were shown and questions were asked. These mechanical teachers had a slot in which the students had to put their homework and test papers. They had to write their answers in a punch code and the mechanical teacher calculated the marks immediately.

2. Why did Margie’s mother send for the County Inspector?
Ans: Margie had been given many tests in geography by the mechanical teacher, but there was no improvement in her performance. It only kept getting worse. It is for this reason that Margie’s mother sent for the County Inspector to find out why this was happening.

3. What did he do?
Ans: The County Inspector gave Margie an apple and started working on the mechanical teacher. He took it apart and then checked it. Margie had hoped that the Inspector would not know how to put the mechanical teacher together again, but he managed to reassemble it. He slowed down the geography sector of the teacher because it was geared a little too quick for an average ten-year-old.

4. Why was Margie doing badly in geography? What did the County Inspector do to help her?
Ans: Margie was doing badly in geography because the geography sector of the mechanical teacher had been geared a little too quick. The County Inspector rightly told her that she could not be blamed for her poor performance. The County Inspector slowed down the geography sector of the mechanical teacher to an average ten-year level. He also told Mrs. Jones that Margie’s overall progress pattern was satisfactory.

5. What had once happened to Tommy’s teacher?
Ans: Once, The history sector of Tommy’s teacher had once blanked out completely.

6. Did Margie have regular days and hours for school? If so, why?
Ans: Yes, Margie had regular days and hours for school. This was because her mother believed that learning at regular hours helped little girls learn better. Her mechanical teacher was also on at the same time everyday except Saturday and Sunday.

7. How does Tommy describe the old kind of school?^
Ans: Tommy described old kind of school as a special building where all kids studied together. There were hundreds of students studying and playing together. They used to shout and laugh together in an open yard.

8. How does he describe the old kind of teachers?
Ans: Tommy said that the old kind of teacherswas men, who taught the students inside a special building. The teachers taught the children in groups and gave them homework and asked them questions.

IV. Answer each of these questions in two or three paragraphs (100 –150 words).
1. What are the main features of the mechanical teachers and the schoolrooms that Margie and Tommy have in the story?
Ans: Margie and Tommy had mechanical teachers. They had large black screens on which all the lessons were shown and questions were asked. They had a slot in which students had to put their homework and test papers. They had to write their answers in a punch code and the mechanical teacher calculated the marks immediately. Their schools were in their homes itself. They did not have any classmates. They learned geography, history and arithmetic. They had regular days and hours for school. Margie’s school was right next to her bedroom. The mechanical teacher always turned on at the same time every day except Saturdays and Sundays because her mother said that little girls learned better when they learned at regular hours.

2. Why did Margie hate school? Why did she think the old kind of school must have been fun?
Ans: Margie hated school because it was not fun. A mechanical teacher used to teach her everyday at a fixed time. Recently, she had been doing badly in the geography tests that her mechanical teacher had been giving her. Her mother was not happy with the performance and sends for the County Inspector, she hopes that the inspector would take the mechanical teacher away. She is disappointed when the County Inspector manages to assemble all the parts of the mechanical teacher. The part that she hated the most was inserting the homework and test papers in the slot on the mechanical teacher.
She did not like the fact that she had to write her answers in a punch code. She thought that the old kind of school must have been fun as she imagined all the kids from the entire neighbourhood coming together, laughing and shouting in the schoolyard. She imagined that they would sit together in the classroom and go home together at the end of the day. They would learn the same things and could help one another with the homework and talk about it. Also, the teachers were people. All these aspects made her believe that the old kind of school must have been fun.

3. Do you agree with Margie that schools today are more fun than the school in the story? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: Yes, I agree schools today are more fun than the school in the story. In the story, there is no interaction among students regarding studies. Studying and answering questions seems to be a boring idea. Doing homework without anybody’s help and writing them in a punch code would also be draining. Moreover, children develop a better understanding about each other and of their surroundings when they go to a school and interact with each other. It is a healthier way of learning.
Listening to teachers explaining lessons is always more interesting than reading the entire lesson on a mechanical computer. Also, if any student faces any problem with the subject or in homework, he can discuss it with the teacher and other kids. It is impossible to discuss problems and situations with a mechanical teacher that is only programmed to teach in a particular manner.
The excitement of waiting to know the marks scored in exams is greater when one is sitting in a classroom with other students. It does not have the same effect when the marks are calculated immediately after a test has been taken.
Finally, the friends that you make at school are most probably the best friends that you will ever make in your entire life. The various qualities that you learn in school like obedience, respect, kindness for others, sharing, taking part in school games, sports, and other activities are all a part of school education today. Therefore, schools today are more fun than the school in the story as they are more interactive. They promote a healthy environment for the students to study and learn.

Tuesday 31 March 2020

“His first flight” (class 10)

The theme of the story “His first flight” is having courage and self-confidence. The story is about a seagull who is on its stage of learning how to fly. It also deals with the theme of how to overcome fears and move forward. It speaks about the self-confidence which is one of the most important features which an individual should possess. The mother seagull turned to be cruel but her intention was kind. She wanted the fear of the young seagull to go away.

His First Flight Questions and Answers

Q1. Why was the young seagull afraid to fly? Do you think all young birds are afraid to make their first flight, or are some birds more timid than others? Do you think a human baby also finds it a challenge to take its first steps?
A. The young seagull was afraid to fly because it was his first flight. He doubted that his wings would not be able to support him. We are well aware that “Journey to a thousand miles begins with a single step” and it is very difficult to take that first step. Thus, I think all birds must be hesitating before taking their first flight, some more than others. Yes, just like young birds, human babies also hesitate while taking their first step.

Q2. “The sight of the food maddened him.” What does this suggest? What compelled the young seagull to finally fly?
A. On not being able to gather courage to fly and acting like a coward, the young seagull’s family left him alone. As a result, he was starving since he could not fly to get his own food. When he saw his mother coming near him with fish, he got excited and dived straight at the fish, forgetting for a moment that he was afraid of flying. Thus, he got so maddened by the sight of food because he was starving, which compelled him to take his first flight.

Q3. “They were beckoning to him, calling shrilly.” Why did the seagull’s father and mother threaten him and cajole him to fly?
A. Unlike his younger siblings, the poor seagull could not gather enough courage to take his first flight. Thus, his parents taunted him for being a coward. They even threatened it to let it starve if he did not try. They thought hunger would make him fly looking for his food. They did all of this because they wanted him to fly.